Distribution of Cadmium in Sweet Corn Grown on a Peat Soil and Its Implication on Food Safety

Rini Susana, Denah Suswati

Abstract


Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that can contaminate agricultural soils, in which one of the sources of Cd in agricultural soils is the use of phosphate fertilizers. Some plant species are known to have the ability to accumulate large amounts of Cd in their organs despite the Cd content in soil is relatively small. Cadmium distribution in various organs of plants also shows a diverse variation. Maize is able to accumulate Cd in its organs, either in roots, leaves or grains. This study aims to determine the distribution of Cd in sweet corn plants grown on a peat soil. Samples of maize plants were taken from nine maize fields in the village of Rasau Jaya 1, Rasau Jaya subdistrict, Kubu Raya district, West Kalimantan. The cultivars of sweet corn planted were Zea mays saccharata cultivar Bonanza and Zea mays saccharata cultivar Secada. Samples for roots, leaves, stems and panicles were taken at the stage of early grain filling. Grain samples were taken at the phase of fresh pod consumption. The Cd contents in the plant organ tissues were determined using dry ashing method. The  results showed that the distribution of Cd in plant organs of sweet corn cultivars Secada and Bonanza follows the pattern of Cd in leaves > roots > grains > panicles > stems. The leaves contain the highest concentration of Cd, while the stems contain the lowest amount of Cd. The Cd concentration in leaves is about 3.5 times higher than that in grains, and 1.5 times higher than that in roots. The average Cd content in grains of sweet corn  is 0.037 mg kg-1, which is still below the safe limit of Cd content in grains allowed by the Standar Nasional Indonesia, i.e. 0.2 mg kg-1. 

 

 


Keywords


Cadmium; food safety; peat soil; sweet corn

Full Text:

PDF

References


Alloway B J. 1997. Heavy Metal in Soils. Second Edition. Jhon Willey and Sons Inc. New York. 368p.

Badan Standarisasi Nasional. 2009. Standar Nasional Indonesia No. 7387: 2009 tentang Batas Maksimum Cemaran Logam Berat dalam Pangan.

Bernard A. 2008. Cadmium and its adverse effects on human health. Indian Journal of Medical Research. 128 (4):557-564.

Chai Z, X He, D Lu, X Qiu and W Yue. 2013. Distribution of cadmium in Aloe vera and its hazard impact on the antioxidant activity. J Adv Mater Res 610-613: 306-310.

Chunhabundid R. 2016. Cadmium exposure and potential health risk from foods in contaminated area in Thailand. Toxicol Res 32: 65-72.

Darmono. 2008. Environment and Pollution: Its Relation to Toxicology of Metal Compounds. UI Press. Jakarta.

Ebbs S D, M M Lasat, J Brady, Cornish J, R Gordon and L V Kochian. 1997. Phytoextraction of cadmium and zinc from a contaminated soil. J Environ Qual 26: 1424-1430.

Greger M and M Lofstedt. 2004. Comparison of uptake and distribution of cadmium in different cultivars of Bread and Durum Wheat. Crop Sci 44: 501-507.

Hasset J J and W L Banwart. 1992. Soils & Their Environment. First Edition. Prentice Hall. New Jerseys. 424 p.

Liu Y, K Liu, Y Lie, W Yang, F Wu, P Zhu, J Zhang, L Chen, S Gao and L Zhang. 2015. Cadmium contamination of soil and crops is affected by intercropping and rotation system in the lower reaches of the Minjiang River in South-Western China. Environ Geochem Health 38: 811-20. doi 10.1007/S10653-015-9762-4.

Neugschwandtner R, P Tlustos, M Komarek and J Szakova. 2008. Phytoextraction of Pb and Cd from a contaminated agricultural soil using EDTA Application Rezimes: Laboratory versus Field Scale Measures of Efficiency. Geoderma 144 : 446-454.

Niu L, F Yang, C Yu, H Yang and W Liu. 2013. Status of metal accumulation in farmland soils accross China: From distribution to risk assesment. Environ Pollut 176: 55-62.

Opeolu BO, O Bamgbose, TA Arowolo and SJ Kadiri. 2005. Phyto-remediation of lead-contaminated soil using Amaranthus cruentus. Paper Prepared for Presentation at The Farm Management Assosiation of Nigeria Conference, Asaba, Nigeria. October 18-20-2005.

Romkens PFAM, HY Guo, CL Chu, TS Liu, CF Chiang and G F Koopmans. 2009. Prediction of cadmium uptake by brown rice and derivation of soil-plant transfer models to improve soil protection guidelines. Environ Pollut 157: 2435-2444.

Sekara A, M Poniedzialek, J Ciura and E Jedrszczyk. 2005. Cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution in the organ of nine crops: implications for phytoremediation. Pol J Environ Stud 14: 509-516.

Sharma S, P Sharma and Mehrotra. 2010. Bioaccumu-lation of heavy metals in Pisum sativum L. growing in fly ash amandemed soil. J Am Sci 6: 43-50.

Singer M J and D N Munns. 2006. Soil Introduction. Sixth Edition. Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jerseys.446 p.

Soil Research Institute. 2005. Technical Guidelines for Chemical Analysis of Soil, Plants, Water and Fertilizers. First Edition. Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian DEPTAN. Bogor.136 p. (in Indonesian).

Stevenson FJ. 1982. Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions. First Edition. John Wiley & Sons. New York. 443 p.

Susana R and D Suswati. 2013. Bioaccumulation and distribution of Cd in roots and shoots three species of Brassicaceae: Implication on phytoremediation. J Manusia dan Lingkungan 20: 221-228.

Susana R, D Suswati and D Anggorowati. 2014. Bioconcentration and transfer factor of Cd of three stadium growth of Aloe vera var. Chinensis on peat soil. Prosiding Seminar dan Rapat Tahunan Dekan BKS- PTN Barat Bidang Ilmu Pertanian. Buku I. Bandar Lampung 19-21 Agustus 2014, pp. 533-539.

Susana R and D Suswati. 2015. Contamination-Pollution Indeks of cadmium in soil of maize farmland at Rasau Jaya Sub-District, Kubu Raya Regency. Paper presented at Rapat Tahunan Dekan BKS- PTN Barat Bidang Ilmu Pertanian. Palangkaraya 20-22 Agustus 2015.

Wang M, J Zou, X Duan, W Jiang and D Liu. 2007. Cadmium accumulation and its effect on metal uptake in maize (Zea mays L.). J Bioresour Technol 98: 82-88.

WHO [World Health Organization]. 2011. Safety evaluation of certain food additives and contaminants/prepared by the seventythird meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA); Geneva. 2011, pp. 305-380.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5400/jts.2018.v23i1.27-33

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


JOURNAL OF TROPICAL SOILS
Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung
Jl. Soemantri Brojonegoro No.1, Bandar Lampung 35145, Lampung
INDONESIA
Phone/fax: +62-721-781822

e-ISSN 2086-6682