The Role of Inundation Types of Tidal Swampland on the Chemical Properties of Potentially Acid Sulphate Soils under Fertilizer and Lime Application

Arifin Fahmi, Muhammad Alwi, Dedi Nursyamsi


Generally, fertilizer application increases soil fertility, on the other hand fertilizer application leads to the alteration of soil chemical balances in which the magnitude of changes is determined by soil properties. The research aimed to study the soil chemical properties of potentially acid sulphate soils (PASS) originally from two types of tidal swampland as influenced by the application fertilizers and lime. A pot experiment was carried out in a glasshouse. Soil samples were taken from PASS originated from two types of tidal swampland, i.e. PASS in type B tidal swampland (PASS-B) and PASS in type C tidal swampland (PASS-C). The experiment was arranged in single factor of completely randomized design, consisting of six levels of urea, SP-36, and KCl fertilizers and lime that were determined based on Decision Support System software (DSS). Soil pH, total nitrogen (N), available phosphorus (P), exchangeable potassium (K) and iron (Fe) were measured periodically every four weeks, soil redox potential (Eh) was measured every week, leaf color index was measured every two weeks. The dynamics of soil pH, concentration of P, K, Fe and N of PASS were influenced by the application of fertilizer rates and lime, although, the magnitude of their changes were influenced by inundation type of tidal swampland. These facts were mainly associated with the presence of Fe mineral in both soils, the different concentration of Fe2+ in PASS-B and PASS-C may be related to land hydrological condition of type B tidal swampland that is frequently flooded as origin of PASS-B.


Fertilization; inundation types; potentially acid sulphate soils; soil chemical properties; tidal swampland

Full Text:



Adeniyan ON, AO Ojo, OA Akinbode and JA Adediran. 2011. Comparative study of different organic manures and NPK fertilizer for improvement of soil chemical properties and dry matter yield of maize in two different soils. J Soil Sci Environ Manage 2: 9-13.

Aggenbach CJS, H Backx, WJ Emsens, AP Grootjans, LPM Lamers, AJP Smolders, PJ Stuyfzand, L Wolejko, and R Van Diggelen. 2013. Do high iron concentrations in rewetted rich fens hamper restoration? Preslia 85:405-420.

Alwi M. 2011. Inaktivasi Pirit dan Jarosit Terlapuk Melalui Pelindian dan Penggunaan Biofilter di Tanah Sulfat Masam. (Disertasi). Institut Pertanian Bogor, Bogor. 170 p. (in Indonesian).

Baken S, M Verbeeck, D Verheyen, J Diels, and E Smolders. 2015. Phosphorus losses from agricultural land to natural waters are reduced by immobilization in iron-rich sediments of drainage ditches. Water Research 71:160-170.

Balai Penelitian Tanah. 2012. Analisis Kimia Tanah, Tanaman, Air dan Pupuk. Second Edition. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian. Departemen Pertanian. Bogor. 136 p. (in Indonesian).

Bonneville S, T Behrends, and P Van Cappellen. 2009. Solubility and dissimilatory reduction kinetics of iron (III) oxyhydroxides: A linear free energy relationship. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta 73: 5273-5282.

Brennan EW and WL Lindsay. 1998. Reduction and oxidation effect on the solubility and transformation of iron oxides. Soil Sci Soc Am J 62: 930-937.

Bindraban PS, C Dimkpa, L Nagarajan, A Roy and R Rabbinge. 2016. Revisiting fertilisers and fertilisation strategies for improved nutrient uptake by plants. Biol Fertil Soils 51: 897-911.

Chi G, X Chen, Y Shi and T Zheng. 2010. Forms and profile distribution of soil Fe in the Sanjiang Plain of Northeast China as affected by land uses. J Soils Sediment 10: 787-795.

Crowdear A and SM Macfie. 1986. Seasonal deposition of ferric hydroxide plaque on roots of wetland plants. Can J Bot 64: 2120-2124.

Cusell C, A Kooijman, F Fernandez, G Van Wirdum, JJM Geurts, EE Van Loon, K Kalbitz, and LPM Lamers. 2014. Filtering fens: Mechanisms explaining phosphoruslimited hotspots of biodiversity in wetlands adjacent to heavily fertilized areas. Sci Tot Environ 481: 129-141.

Dobermann A and T Fairhurst. 2000. Rice : Nutrient Disorders and Nutrient Management. IRRI. Makati city, The Fhillipines. 191 p.

Dong NM, KK Brandt, J Sørensen, NN Hung, CV Hach, PS Tan and T Dalsgaard. 2012. Effects of alternating wetting and drying versus continuous flooding on fertilizer nitrogen fate in rice fields in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Soil Biol Biochem 47: 166-174.

Drury CF and EG Beauchamp. 1991. Ammonium fixation, release, nitrification, and immobilization in high- and low-fixing soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 55: 125-129.

Dufey I, P Hakizimana, X Draye, S Lutts and P Bertin. 2009. QTL mapping for biomass and physiological parameters linked to resistance mechanisms to ferrous iron toxicity in rice. Euphytica 167: 143-160.

Fageria NK, GD Carvalho, AB Santos, EPB Ferreira and AM Knupp. 2011. Chemistry of lowland rice soils and nutrient availability. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 42: 1913-1933.

Fahmi A, S Nurzakiah and E Purnomo. 2005. Evaluasi teknik persiapan contoh tanah dan metode analisis tanah untuk pengukuran fosfat di lahan pasang surut. J Trop Soils 10: 85-90. (in Indonesian).

Fahmi A, B Radjagukguk, and BH Purwanto. 2012. The Leaching of iron and loss of phosphate in acid sulphate soil due to rice straw and phosphate fertilizer application. J Trop Soils 17: 19-24.

Ghiri MN and A Abtahi. 2012. Factors affecting potassium fixation in calcareous soils of southern Iran. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 12: 335-352.

Grant RF, AR Desai, and BN Sulman. 2012. Modelling contrasting responses of wetland productivity to changes in water table depth. Biogeosciences 9: 4215-4231.

Guzman G, E Alcantara and V Barro´n. 1994. Phytoavailability of phosphate adsorbed on ferrihydrite, hematite, and goethite. Plant and Soil 159: 219-225.

Hairani A and A Susilawati 2013. Changes of soil chemical properties during rice straw decomposition in different type of acid sulphate soil. J Trop Soils18: 99-103.

Heiberg L, TV Pedersen, HS Jensen, C Kjaergaard and HCB Hansen. 2010. A comparative study of phosphate sorption in lowland soils under oxic and anoxic conditions. J Environ Quality 39: 734-743.

IPNI. 2014. International Plant Nutrition Institute. (Accesed on April 05, 2018)

Johnston SG, AF Keene, RT Bush, ED Burton, LA Sullivan, D Smith, AE McElnea, MA Martens, and S Wilbraham. 2009. Contemporary pedogenesis of severely degraded tropical acid sulfate soils after introduction of regular tidal inundation. Geoderma 149: 335-346.

Keerthisinghe G, K Mengel, and SK De Datta. 1984. The release of nonexchangeable ammonium (15N labeled) in wetland rice soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 48: 291-294.

Koyama T. 1981. The transformation and balances of nitrogen in Japanese paddy fields. Fertilizer Research 2: 261-278.

Kselik RAL. 1990. Water management on acid sulphate soils Pulau Petak, South Kalimantan. Papers Workshop on Acid Sulphate Soils in The Humid Tropics : Water management and soil fertility. Agency for Agricultural Research and Development/AARD, and The Land and Water Resource Group/LAWOO. Jakarta. pp. 249-276.

Li Q, X Wang, D Kan, R Bartlett, G Pinay, Y Ding and W Ma. 2012. Enrichment of Phosphate on Ferrous Iron Phases during Bio-Reduction of Ferrihydrite. Int J Geosci 3: 314-320.

Liu E, C Yan, X Mei, W He, SH Bing, L Ding, Q Liu, S Liu and T Fan. 2010. Long-term effect of chemical fertilizer, straw, and manure on soil chemical and biological properties in Northwest China. Geoderma 158: 173-180.

Loeb R, LPM Lamers, and JGM Roelofs. 2008. Prediction of phosphorus mobilization in inundated floodplain soils. Environmental Pollutants 156: 325-331.

Michael PS, RW Fitzpatrick and RJ Reid. 2017. Effects of live wetland plant macrophytes on acidification, redox potential and sulphate content in acid sulphate soils. Soil Use and Management. 1–11.

Morris AJ and DL Hesterberg. 2010. Mechanisms of phosphate dissolution from soil organic matter. In : RJ Gilkes and N Prakongkep. (Eds). Soil Solutions for a Changing World. 19th World Congress of Soil Science. Brisbane, Australia. pp. 37-39.

Nanzyo M, H Onodera, E Hasegawa, K Ito, and H Kanno. 2012. Formation and dissolution of vivianite in paddy field soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 77: 1452-1459.

Norman RJ, CE Wilson Jr, NA Slaton, BR Griggs, JT Bushong and EE Gbur. 2009. Nitrogen fertilizer sources and timing before flooding dry-seeded, delayed-flood rice. Soil Sci Soc Am J 73: 2184-2190.

Nriagu J. 1972. Stability of vivianite and ion-pair formation in the system Fe3 (PO4)2-H3PO4-H2O, Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 36: 459-470.

Raheb A and A Heidari. 2011. Clay mineralogy and its relationship with potassium forms in some paddy and non-paddy soils of northern Iran. Australian J Agric Eng 2: 169-175.

Reddy KR and RD Delaune. 2008. The Biogeochemistry of Wetland : Science and Application. CRC Press. New York. 774 p.

Rothe M, T Frederichs, M Eder, A Kleeberg and M Hupfer. 2014. Evidence for vivianite formation and its contribution to long-term phosphorus retention in a recent lake sediment: a novel analytical approach. Biogeosciences 11: 5169-5180.

Sahrawat KL. 2015. Redox potential and pH as major drivers of fertility in submerged rice soils: a conceptual framework for management. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 46: 1597-1606.

Shamshuddin J, AE Azura, MARS Shazana, CI Fauziah, QA Panhwar and UA Naher. 2014. Properties and management of acid sulfate soils in Southeast Asia for sustainable cultivation of rice, oil palm, and cocoa. In: DL Sparks (eds) Advances in Agronomy 124: 91-142

Senewe RE and JB Alfons. 2011. Kajian adaptasi beberapa varietas unggul baru padi sawah pada sentra produksi padi di seram bagian barat provinsi maluku. Jurnal Budidaya Pertanian 7: 60-64.

Singh M, B Sarkar, B Biswas, J Churchman and NS Bolan. 2016. Adsorption-desorption behavior of dissolved organic carbon by soil clay fractions of varying mineralogy. Geoderma 280: 47–56.

Stumm W and JJ Morgan. 1996. Aquatic Chemistry: Chemical Equilibria and Rates in Natural Waters. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 1022 p.

Sullivan L, R Bush, E Burton, C Ritsema and M van Mensvoort. 2012. Acid sulfate soils. In: PM Huang, Y Li and ME Sumner. (eds). Handbook of Soil Sciences: Resource Management and Environmental Impacts. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. pp. 21-26.

Trehan SP. 1996. Immobilization of 15 NH4+ in three soils by chemical and biological processes. Soil Biol Biochem 28: 1021-1027.

WangY, X Liu, C Butterly, C Tang and J Xu. 2013a. pH change, carbon and nitrogen mineralization in paddy soils as affected by Chinese milk vetch addition and soil water regime. J Soils Sediment 13: 654-663.

Wang X, F Liu, W Tan, W Li, X Feng and DL Sparks. 2013b. Characteristics of phosphate adsorption-desorption onto ferrihydrite: comparison with well-crystalline Fe (hydr)oxides. Soil Science 178: 1-11.

Xing GX and ZL Zhu. 2000. An assessment of N loss from agricultural fields to the environment in China. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 57: 67-73.

Yang WH, AK Weber and WL Silver. 2012. Nitrogen loss from soil through anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction. Nature Geoscience 1-4.

Yuan C, LM Mosley, R Fitzpatrick and P Marschner. 2016. Organic matter addition can prevent acidification during oxidation of sandy hypersulfidic and hyposulfidic material: Effect of application form, rate and C/N ratio. Geoderma 276: 26-32.

Zak D, C Wagner, B Payer, J Augustin and J Gelbrecht. 2010. Phosphorus mobilization in rewetted fens : The effect of altered peat properties and implications for their restoration. Ecol Appli 20: 1336-1349.

Zhang JZ and X Huang. 2007. Relative importance of solid-phase phosphorus and iron on the sorption behavior of sediments. Environ Sci Tech 41: 2789-2795.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


University of OxfordColumbia University LibraryStanford Crossref EBSCO


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.