Influence of soil compaction on growth, yield and soil loss resulting from groundnut harvesting

Esther Abosede Ewetola


A study was conducted to quantify soil loss due to groundnut harvesting as influenced by soil compaction. Ten kilograms of soil with an initial bulk density of 1.05 Mg m-3 were compressed to 1.57, 1.72, 1.88, 2.04 and 2.42 Mg m-3. The experiment was a completely randomized design with three replications. Groundnut seeds were sown in pots and data were collected on growth indices at 2 week interval while force and energy of harvesting and soil loss due to groundnut harvesting (SLGH) were determined at 12 weeks after sowing. Data were analysed using ANOVA and Fishers LSD at P= 0.05. Soil compacted to1.88 Mgm-3 produced taller plant, higher number of leaves and branches than the control. Soil compaction significantly reduced number of pods, roots and fresh root weight relative to the control. Bulk density of 2.04 Mg m-3 required significantly higher force (42.47 N) and energy (45.73 J) in harvesting than the control and other compaction levels. Soil loss due to groundnut harvesting increased (13- 42%) in all compaction levels although statistically similar. Soil compaction beyond 1.88 Mg m-3 in this study could have adverse effect on growth and yield of groundnut and could increase soil loss due to harvesting. 


bulk density; groundnut & growth and yield; soil compaction; soil loss


Abdulai A and W E Huffman. 2005. The diffusion of new agricultural technologies: The case of crossbred-cow technology in Tanzania. American Journal of Agricultural Economics, 87(3), 645-659.

Aiyelari E A, S O Oshunsanya, J A Fagbenro, F O Oritsejafor and E A Ewetola. 2013. Groundnut (Arachis hypogeal L.) growth and yield as affected by soil compaction. Environtropica, 9 & 10: 73-83.

Babalola O, S O Oshunsanya and K Are. 2006. Continuous cultivation of maize under vetiver grass strip management; runoff soil loss, nutrient losses and maize yields. Ibadan Journal of Agricultural Research 1(2):16-26.

Babalola O, S O Oshunsanya and K Are. 2007. Effect of vetiver grass (Vetiveria nigritana) strips, vetiver grass mulch and organomineral fertilizer on runoff; soil losses, and maize (Zea mays) yield. Soil and Tillage Research 196: 6-18.

Babalola O. 2007. Soil Erosion Problems in Nigeria: The use of vetiver system technology. University of Ibadan, Ibadan Nigeria, 91p.

Bohringer C and A Loschel. 2006. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: Status quo and prospects. Ecological Economics, 60(1): 49–64.

Bosello F, R J Nicholls, J Richards, R Roson and R S J Tol. 2012. Economic impacts of climate change in Europe: sea-level rise. Climatic Change, 112, 63–81.

Bray R H and I T Kurtz. 1945. Determination of total and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science, no. 59, pp. 45–49.

Bremner, J N and C S Mulvary. 1965. Total nitrogen. In: Sparks (Ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis, American Society of Agronomy, pp. 599–622.

Lipper R L and U Narloch. 2011. Modern variety adoption and risk management in drought prone areas: insights from the sorghum farmers of eastern Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics 42(3): 279-292.

Chude V O, S O Olayiwola, A O Osho and C K Daudu. 2011. Fertilizer use and management practices for crops in Nigeria. Fourth edition. Federal Fertilizer Department, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Abuja, Nigeria, pp 1-59.

Dada P O O, O R Adeyanju and O J Adeosun. 2016. Effects of soil physical properties on soil due to manual yam harvesting under a sandy loam environment. International Soil and Water Conservation Research 4: 121- 125.

Esu I E. 1991. Detailed soil survey of NIHORT Farm at Bunkure, Kano State , Nigeria. Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 72 pp.

Gaultney L, G W Krutz, G C Steinhardt and J B Liljedahl. 1982. Effects of subsoil compaction

on corn yields. Trans. ASAE 25 (3): 563–0569.

Gee G W and D Or. 2002. Particle size analysis. In: Dane and Topp (Eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, pp. 255–293.

Hamza M A and W K Anderson. 2005. Soils compactions in cropping systems: A review of the nature, causes and possible solutions. Soil Tillage Research, 59:121-145.

Isabirye M, G Ruysschaert, L Vasn linden, J Poesen, M K Magunda and J Deckers. 2006. Soil losses due to cassava and sweet potato harvesting: A case study from low input traditional agriculture. Soil and Tillage Research 92:96-103.

Murdock, L W and J James. 2008. Compaction, tillage method, and sub-soiling effects on crop production (Retrieved April 2014).

Nelson D W and L E Sommers. 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Sparks (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, pp. 961–1010.

Ogawa S, G Saito, N Mino, S Uchida, N M Khan and M Shafiq. 1997. Estimation of soil erosion using USLE and Landsat T.M. in Pakistan (ACRS 1–5). Retrieved from GIS

Oshunsanya S O, K Are and O. Babalola. 2010. Soil sediment accumulation and crop yields as affected by vetiver buffer strips spacing in south west Nigeria. In Proceedings of the 33th Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria, ed. S. O. Ojeniyi, 50–58. Ibadan, Nigeria: Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan.

Poesen J W A, G Verstraeten, L Seynaeve and R Soenens.1999. Soil losses caused by chicory root and sugar beet harvesting in Belgium: importance and implications. In: Sustaining the Global Farm. Selected papers from the 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting Held May 24–29, 1999 at Purdue University and the USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory, Stott DE, Mohtar RH, Steinhardt GC (eds). pp 312–316.

Rigo L. 2002. Results of the CIBE survey on topping, dirt tare and inter professional agreements in European countries. Zuckerindustrie 127: 31–44.

SAS institute, 2002. SAS/STAT User’s Guide. In: Version 8.2. SAS Institute Cary, NC.

Schlesinger W H, J F Reynolds, G.L Cunningham, L F Huenneke, W M Jarrell, R A Virginia and W G Whitford. 1990. Biological feedbacks in global desertification. Science 247:1043-1048.

Schulze L P and J Stratz. 2003. Progress in soil tare separation in sugar beet harvest. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 166: 126–127.

Wilson J P and M S Lorang. 2000. Spatial models of soil erosion and GIS. In A S Fotheringham and M Wegener (eds). Spatial models and GIS: new potential and new models, PA Philadelphia. pp 83–108.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.