Influence of Induced Soil Compaction on the Growth, the Yield and the Soil Loss Resulting from the Groundnut Harvesting

Esther Abosede Ewetola


The research was conducted to study  the growth and the yield of the groundnut plant and to  quantify the soil loss after groundnut harvesting as influenced by induced soil compaction. A ten kilogram of soil was packed in the pots with an initial bulk density of 1.05 Mg m-3, then it were compressed to1.57, 1.72, 1.88, 2.04, and 2.42 Mg m-3. The research was conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications. Groundnut seeds were sown in pots and the plant growth data were collected in a 2-week interval while force and energy of harvesting and soil loss due to groundnut harvesting were determined at 12 weeks after sowing. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Fishers LSD at P= 0.05. Soil compacted to1.88 Mgm-3 produced more taller plant, more higher number of leaves and branches than control. Soil compaction significantly reduced the number of pods, roots, and fresh root weight compared to control. Bulk density (2.04 Mgm-3) required a significantly higher force (42.47 N) and energy (45.73 J) in harvesting than control and other compaction levels. Soil loss due to the  groundnut harvesting increased (13- 42%) in all compaction levels although statistically not different. Soil compaction beyond 1.88 Mg m-3 could affect the growth and the yield of groundnut and could increase the soil loss at harvesting.


bulk density; groundnut; soil compaction; soil loss

Full Text:



Abdulai A and W E Huffman. 2005. The diffusion of new agricultural technologies: The case of crossbred-cow technology in Tanzania. Am J Agr Econ 87: 645-659.

Aiyelari EA, SO Oshunsanya, JA Fagbenro, FO Oritsejafor and EA Ewetola. 2013. Groundnut (Arachis hypogeal L.) growth and yield as affected by soil compaction. Environtropica 9 & 10: 73-83.

Babalola O, SO Oshunsanya and K Are. 2007. Effect of vetiver grass (Vetiveria nigritana) strips, vetiver grass mulch and organomineral fertilizer on runoff; soil losses, and maize (Zea mays) yield. Soil Till Res 196: 6-18.

Babalola O. 2007. Soil Erosion Problems in Nigeria: The use of vetiver system technology. University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 91p.

Bohringer C and A Loschel. 2006. Computable general equilibrium models for sustainability impact assessment: Status quo and prospects. Ecol Econ 60: 49-64.

Bray RH and IT Kurtz. 1945. Determination of total and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Sci: 59: 45-49.

Bremner JN and CS Mulvary. 1965. Total nitrogen. In: Sparks (ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis, American Society of Agronomy, pp. 599-622.

Cavatassi R, L Lipper and U Narloch. 2011. Modern variety adoption and risk management in drought-prone areas: insights from the sorghum farmers of eastern Ethiopia. Agr Econ 42: 279-292.

Chen YL, J Palta, J Clements, B Buirchell, KH Siddique and Z Rengel. 2014. Root architecture alteration of narrow-leafed lupin and wheat in response to soil compaction. Field Crops Res 165: 61-70.

Chude VO, SO Olayiwola, AO Osho and CK Daudu. 2011. Fertilizer use and management practices for crops in Nigeria. Fourth edition. Federal Fertilizer Department, Federal Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Abuja, Nigeria, pp 1-59.

Dada POO, OR Adeyanju and OJ Adeosun. 2016. Effects of soil physical properties on soil due to manual yam harvesting under a sandy loam environment. Int Soil Water Conserv Res 4: 121- 125.

Esu IE. 1991. Detailed soil survey of NIHORT Farm at Bunkure, Kano State, Nigeria. Institute for Agricultural Research, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria, 72 pp.

Etana A, M Larsbo, T Keller, J Arvidsson, P Schjonning, J Forkman and N Jarvis. 2013. Persistent subsoil compaction and its effects on preferential flow patterns in a loamy till soil. Geoderma 192: 430-436.

Ewetola EA. 2017. Quantifying tillage and vetiver grass (Vetiveria nigritana Stapf) strips spacing effects on runoff, soil loss, and maize yield in southern guinea savanna of Nigeria. J Northeast Agr Univ 24: 1-18.

FAO [Food and Agriculture Organization]. 2011. The State of the World’s Land and Water Resources for Food and Agriculture. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations: Rome, Italy; Earthscan: London, UK, 2011.

Gee GW and DOr. 2002. Particle size analysis. In: Dane and Topp (Eds.) Methods of Soil Analysis, Methods of Soil Analysis. Am Soc Agron pp. 255–293.

Isabirye M, G Ruysschaert, L Vasn linden, J Poesen, M K Magunda and J Deckers. 2006. Soil losses due to cassava and sweet potato harvesting: A case study from low input traditional agriculture. Soil Till Res 92: 96-103.

Keller T, M Lamande, S Peth, M Berli, JY Delenne, W Baumgarten and D Or. 2013. An interdisciplinary approach towards improved understanding of soil deformation during compaction. Soil Till Res 128: 61-80

Lindemans I 2002. Milieu-economischeaspecten van tarragrond. Unpublished MSc. Thesis, Department of Geography, K.U. Leuven.

Nelson DW and LE Sommers. 1996. Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks (eds). Methods of Soil Analysis. American Society of Agronomy, pp. 961-1010.

Nunes MR, JE Denardin, EA Pauletto, A Faganello and FS Pinto. 2015. Effect of soil chiseling on soil structure and root growth for a clayey soil under no-tillage. Geoderma 259 (-260): 149-155.

Obafemi OO and AY Mouiz. 2019. Effect of soil compaction on the growth and nutrient uptake of Zea mays L. Sustain Agr Res 8: 46-54.

Oku EE, Aiyelari EA and KO Asubonteng. 2015. Using vetiver technology to control erosion and improve productivity in slope farming. In: United Nations University Institute for Natural Resources In Africa (UNU-INRA) Accra, Ghana. 44 pp.

Oshunsanya SO, K Are and O Babalola. 2010. Soil sediment accumulation and crop yields as affected by vetiver buffer strip spacing in southwest Nigeria. In: SO Ojeniyi (ed). Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Conference of the Soil Science Society of Nigeria. Ibadan, Nigeria: Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan. pp. 50-58.

Oshunsanya SO. 2016. Quantification of soil loss due to white cocoyam (Colocasia esculentus) and red cocoyam (Xanthosoma sagittifolium) harvesting in traditional farming systems. Catena 137: 134-143.

Oshunsanya S O, Y Hanqing, and L Yong. 2018. Soil loss due to root crop harvesting increases with tillage operations. Soil Till Res 181: 93-101.

Poesen JW, G Verstraeten, R Soenens and L Seynaeve, 2001. Soil losses due to harvesting of chicory roots and sugar beet: an underrated geomorphic process? Catena 43:35- 47.

Poesen J. 2018. Soil erosion in the Anthropocene: research needs. Earth Surface Process. Landform 43: 64-84.

Rickson RJ. 2014. Can control of soil erosion mitigate water pollution by sediments? Sci Total Environ 468-469: 1187-1197.

Rigo L. 2002. Results of the CIBE survey on topping, dirt tare, and inter professional agreements in European countries. Zuckerindustrie 127: 31-44.

Ruysschaert G, J Poesen, G Verstraeten and G Govers. 2006. Soil losses due to mechanized potato harvesting. Soil Till Res 86: 52-72.

Salem HM, C Valero, MA Munoz, MG Rodriguez and LL Silva. 2015. Short-term effects offour tillage practices on soil physical properties, soil water potential, and maize yield. Geoderma 237: 60-70.

SAS Institute. 2002. SAS/STAT User’s Guide. In: Version 8.2. SAS Institute Cary, NC.

Wilson JP and MS Lorang. 2000. Spatial models of soil erosion and GIS. In: AS Fotheringham and M Wegener (eds). Spatial models and GIS: new potential and new models, PA Philadelphia, pp 83-108.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.