Impact of Land Use Change and Land Management on Irrigation Water Supply in Northern Java Coast

Suria Darma Tarigan, Rudolf Kristian Tukayo


In Indonesia, paddy irrigation covers an area of 7,230,183 ha. Ten percent (10%) of those area or 797,971 ha were supplied by reservoirs. As many as 237,790 ha (30%) of those area supplied by reservoirs are situated downstream of Citarum Watershed called Northern Java Coast Irrigation Area or Pantura. Therefore, Citarum watershed is one of the most important watershed in Indonesia. Citarum is also categorized as one of most degraded watershed in Java. The study aimed to evaluate influence of land use change on irrigation water supply in Citarum watershed and land management strategies to reduce the impact. Tremendous land use change occurred in the past ten years in Citarum watershed. Settlement areas increases more than a double during 2000 to 2009 (81,686 ha to 176,442 ha) and forest area decreased from 71,750 ha to 9,899 ha in the same time period. Land use change influences irrigation water supply through 2 factors: a) decreasing storage capacity of watershed (hydrologic functions) for dry season, and b) decreasing storage capacity of reservoirs due to the sedimentation. Change of Citarum  watershed hydrologic function was analyzed using 24 years’ time series discharge data (1984-2008) in combination with rainfall data from 2000 to 2008. Due to the land use change in this time period, discharge tend to decrease despite of increasing trend
of rainfall. As a result irrigation area decreased 9,355 ha during wet season and 10,170 ha during dry season in the last ten years. Another threat for sustainability of water irrigation supply is reservoir sedimentation. Sedimentation rate in the past 10 years has reduced upper Citarum reservoir (Saguling) half-life period (½ capacity sedimented) from 294 to 28 years. If proper land management strategies be carried out, the half-life period of Saguling reservoir can be extended up to 86,4 years

Keywords: Citarum watershed, improved land management, irrigation water supply, land use change, sedimentation

[How to Cite: Tarigan SD and RK Tukayo. 2013.Impact of Land Use Change and Land Management on Irrigation Water Supply in Northern Java Coast. JTrop Soils 18 (2): 169-176. Doi: 10.5400/jts.2013.18.2.169]



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Citarum watershed; improved land management; irrigation water supply; land use change; sedimentation

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