Quality of Soil and Yield of Food Crops in Ultisols Due to Application of Manure and Source of Phosphate Fertilizer

Yoyo Soelaeman, Umi Haryati


Acid upland soil in Indonesia has a potential for agricultural development but it has constraints low of organic C and available P as well as the soil physical properties have been degraded. The use of manure and direct application phosphate rock (PR) was an alternative to improve land productivity and crop yields. The objective of the study was to examine the effects of manure and the sources of P on soil physical and chemical properties and yield of foods crop that was arranged on intensive cropping systems of upland rice + maize -/- cassava- mungbean. The experiment was carried out at Tamanbogo Station Farm, East Lampung since 2007 until 2009 using randomized completely block design with 3 replications. The treatments were (1) 10 Mg ha-1 manures + 1 Mg ha-1 of RP, (2) without manure + 1 Mg ha-1 of PR, (3) 10 Mg ha-1 manures + 100 kg ha-1 SP 36, and (4) without manure + 100 kg ha-1 SP 36. The results showed that the application of manure along with PR improved soil chemical and physical characteristics. Its improvement affected the yield of foods crops, hence the profit increased with B/C ratio between 2.88-3.60.


Food crops; manure; soil quality; source of P; upland ultisols

Full Text:



Agus F, RD Yustika and U Haryati. 2006. Penetapan berat volume tanah. In: U Kurnia, F Agus, A Adimiharja and A Dariah (eds). Sifat fisik dan metode analisisnya. Balai Besar Sumberdaya Pertanian. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Departemen Pertanian (in Indonesian).

Alloush GA. 2003. Dissolution and effectiveness of phosphate rock in acidic soil amended with cattle manure. Plant Soil 251 (1): 37-46.

Chien SH and DK Friessen. 1992. Phosphate Rock for Direct Application. In: Workshop on Future Direction for Agricultural Phosphorus. TVA Bull. Y-224. Tennessee Valley Authority, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, USA, pp. 47-52.

Chien SH, LI Prochnow and R Mikkelsen. 2010. Agronomic use of phosphate rock for direct application. Better Crops 94 (4): 21-23.

Chien SH. 2003. Factors affecting the agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rock for direct application. In: SSS Rajan and SH Chien (eds). Direct Application of Phosphate Rock and Related Technology. Latest Development and Practical Experiences, Special Publication IFDC-SP-37, IFDC, Muscle Shoals, Alabama, pp. 50-62.

Dierolf T, T Fairhutst and E Mutert. 2001. Soil Fertility Kit. A Toolkit for Acid Upland soil Fertility Management in Southeast Asia. Handbook Series. GT2 GmbH, Food and Agriculture Organization, P.T. Jasa Katon and Potash & Phosphate Institute (PPI), Potash & Phosphate Institute of Canada (PPIC). First Edition. Printed by Oxford Graphic Printers.

Hartatik W and LR Widowati. 2009. Pupuk Kandang. In: RDM Simanungkalit, DA Suriadikarta, R Saraswati, D Setyorini and W Hartatik (eds). Organic Fertilizer and Biofertilizer. Balai Besar Litbang Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, pp. 59-82 (in Indonesian)..

Hsieh SC and CF Hsieh. 1990. The User of Organic matter in Crop Production. Paper Presented at Seminar on The Use of Organic Fertilizers in Crop Production at Suweon, South Korea, 18-24 June 1990.

Kang BT. 1989. Nutrient management for sustained crop production in the humid and sub humid. In: V Heide (ed). Proc. International Symposium Nutrient Management for Food Crop Production in Tropical Farming Systems, IB-DLO and Brawijaya University.

Mengel K and EA Kirkby. 1987. Principles of Plant Nutrition. 4th ed. Bern: International Potash Institute, 687 p.

Ramon C, RJ Freud and PC Spector. 1992. SAS Systems for Linier Models, Third Edition. SAS Series in Statistical Applications. SAS Instutute Inc., 1992, 329 p.

Rochayati S, MT Sutriadi and A Kasno. 2009. Pemanfaatan fosfat alam untuk lahan kering masam. In: Fosfat Alam. Pemanfaatan Pupuk Fosfat Alam Sebagai Sumber Pupuk P. Balai Penelitian Tanah, Balai Besar Litbang Sumberdaya Lahan Pertanian, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian, Departemen Pertanian, pp. 45-60 (in Indonesian).

Soelaeman Y, A Kasno, HT Sidik, U Haryati, Nurjaya, D Setyorini and F Agus. 2003. Laporan Akhir Peningkatan Produktivitas Tanah Kering Masam. Tahun Anggaran 2003. The Participatory Development of Agricultural Technology Project. Balai Penelitian Tanah, Pusat Peneltian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Pertanian Departemen Pertanian (in Indonesian).

Soelaeman Y, W Hartatik, Irawan and D Erfandy. 2011. The Potentials and Prospects of Potato Development In: Pelompek Village of Kerinci Regency, Jambi. Paper Presented in International Symposium of Sustainable Vegetable Production in Sout East Asia. Satya Wacana Christian University Salatiga, 13-17 March 2011, Central Java, Indonesia. 15 p.

Stanford G, OL Bennett and JF Power. 1973. Conservation tillage practices and nutrient availability. In: Proc National Conservation Tillage Conference, Des Moines, Iowa. Soil Cons. Soc. of Am., Ankey, IA.

Subagyo H, N Suharta and AB Siswanto. 2000. Tanah Pertanian di Indonesia. In: Sumberdaya Lahan di Indonesia dan Pengelolaannya. Pusat Penelitian Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogor, pp. 21-66 (in Indonesian).

Sutriadi MT, R Hidayat, S Rochayato and D Setyorini. 2005. Ameliorasi lahan dengan fosfat alam untuk perbaikan kesuburan tanah kering masam Typic Hapludox di Kalimantan Selatan. In: Prosiding Seminar Nasional Inovasi Sumberdaya Tanah dan Iklim. Buku II. Bogor, 14-15 September 2004. Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Tanah dan Agroklimat, Bogo, pp. 143-155 (in Indonesian).

Zapata F and AR Zaharah. 2002. Phosphorus availability from phosphate rock and sewage sludge as influenced by the addition of water-soluble phosphate fertilizer. Nutr Cycle Agroecosys 63: 43-48.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5400/jts.2012.v17i1.45-52


  • There are currently no refbacks.


University of OxfordColumbia University LibraryStanford Crossref EBSCO


Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.