Jurnal TANAH TROPIKA (Journal of Tropical Soils), Vol 18, No 1

Font Size:  Small  Medium  Large

Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia

. Aflizar, Roni Afrizal, Tsugiyuki Masunaga


Quantitative evaluation of soil erosion rate is an important basic to investigate and improve land use system, which has not been sufficiently conducted in Indonesia.  The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Erosion Three Dimension (E3D) in Surfer were used to identify characteristic of dominant erosion factors in Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra, Indonesia using data soil survey and monitoring sediment yield in outlet watershed.  Climatology data from three stations were used to calculate Rainfall erosivity (R) factor. As many as101 sampling sites were used to investigate soil erodibility (K-factor) with physico-chemical laboratory analysis. Digital elevation model (DEM) of Sumani Watershed was used to calculate slope length and Steepness (LS-factor). Landsat TM imagery and field survey were used to determine crop management (C-factor) and conservation practices (P-factor). Calculating soil loss and map of USLE factor were determined by Kriging method in Surfer 9. Sumani Watershed had erosion hazard in criteria as: severe to extreme severe (26.23%), moderate (24.59%) and very low to low (49.18%).  Annual average soil loss for Sumani watershed was 76.70 Mg ha-1 y-1 in 2011. Upland area was designated as having a severe to extreme severe erosion hazard compared to lowland which was designated  as having very less to moderate.  On the other land, soil eroded from upland were deposited in lowland. These results were verified by comparing one year’s sediment yield observation on the outlet of the watershed. Land use (C-factor), rainfall erosivity (R- factor), soil erodibility (K-factor), slope length and steepness (LS-factor) were dominant factors that affected soil erosion. Traditional soil conservation practices were applied by farmer for a long time such as terrace in Sawah.  The USLE model in Surfer was used to identify specific regions susceptible to soil erosion by water and was also applied to identify suitable sites to conduct soil conservation planning in Sumani Watershed.

[How to Cite : Aflizar, R Afrizal, T Masunaga. 2013. Assessment Erosion 3D Hazard with USLE and Surfer Tool: A Case Study of Sumani Watershed in West Sumatra Indonesia. J Trop Soils, 18 (1): 81-92. doi: 10.5400/jts.2013.18.1.81]

[Permalink/DOI: www.dx.doi.org/10.5400/jts.2013.18.1.81]


Abdurachman A, S Abuyamin, and U Kurnia. 1990. Pengelolaan Tanah and Tanaman untuk Usaha Konservasi (Soil and Crop Management to Conservation), PPT Bogor (in Indonesian).
Annekatarin S, S Jurgen and T Rolf. 2006. Derivation of site-related measures to minimize soil erosion on the watershed scale in the Saxonian loess belt using the model erosion 3D. Catena 38: 153-160.
Ahmet I, T Fatih and V Uygur. 2007. Estimating spatial distribution of soil loss over Seyhan River Basin in Turkey. J Hydrol 336: 30-37.
Alejandro MDA and O Kenji. 2007. Estimating of vegetation parameter for modeling soil erosion using linear Spectral Mixture Analysis of Landsat ETM data. CISPRS J Photogramm Rem Sens 62: 309-324.
Bakker MM, G Govers, AV Doorn, F Quentier, D Chouvardas and M Rounsevell. 2008. The response of soil erosion and sediment export to land-use change in four areas of Europe: The importance of landscape pattern. Geomorphology 98: 213-226.
Bols PC. 2000. The Iso-Erodent Map of Java and Madura. Bogor, Indonesia, Belgian Technical Assistant Project ATA 105, Soil Research Institute, Bogor, Indoesia.
Blake GR. 1986. Bulk Density. In: A Klute (ed). Methods of Soil analysis, Part I. Physical and Minerological Methods. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, pp. 364-367.
Cebecauer T and H Jaroslav. 2007. The consequences of land-cover change on soil erosion distribution in Slovakia. Geomorphology 97: 121-132.
Chris SR and H Harbor. 2002. Soil erosion assessment tools from point to regional scales-the role of geomorphologists in land management research and implication. Geomorphology 47: 189-209.
Ciesiolka C A, KJ Coughlan, CW Rose, MC Escalante, GM Hashim, EP Paningbatan Jr and S Sombatpanit. 1995. Methodology for a multi-country study of soil erosion management. Soil Technol 8: 179-192.
De Boodt M 1967 : Water Saturated Permeability Determination on Undisturbed Soil Samples. European methods for Soil Structure determination, V106-V107.
De Jong SM, ML Paracchini, F Bertolo, S Folving, J Megier and APJ De Roo. 1999. Regional assessment of soil erosion using the distributed model SEMMED and remotely sensed data. Catena 37: 291-308.
Edwards K 1993: Soil erosion and conservation in Australia In: D Pimentel (ed), World Soil Erosion and Conservation, Cambridge, pp 147-169.
Elena A, M Carlo, MA Nearing and CS Vincenza. 2004. Scale effect in USLE and WEPP application for soil erosion computation from three Sicilian basins. J Hydrol 293: 100-114.
Farida, J Kevin, K Dian, W Atiek, E Andree, PH Danan, J Laxman, S Deshi and VN Meine. 2005. Rapid Hydrological Appraisal (RHA) of Singkarak Lake in the Context of Rewarding Upland Poor for Environmental Services (RUPES). ICRAF South Asia. Bogor, Indonesia, Working Paper 1-76.
Fox DM and BB Rorke. 1999. The Relationship of soil loss by interrill erosion to slope gradient. Catena 38: 211-222.
Golden Software. 2010. SURFER 9 for windows. Golden, Colorado. Available from URL: http://www.goldensoftware.com/products/surfer/surfer.shtml.
Goovaerts P. 2000. Geostatistical in soil science: state-of-the-art and perspectives. Geoderma 89: 1-45.
Hua L, CJ Moran and PP Ian. 2006. Modelling sediment delivery ratio over the Murray Darling Basin. Environ Mod Soft 21: 1297-1308.
Irvem A, F Topaglu and V Uygur. 2007. Estimating spatial distribution of soil loss over Seyhan River Basin in Turkey. J Hydrol 336: 30-37.
Istijono B 2006: Konservasi Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS) dan Pendapatan Petani: Studi tetang Integrasi Pengelolaan Daerah Aliran Sungai -Studi Kasus: DAS Sumani Kabupaten Solok/Kota Solok, Sumatera Barat (Watershed Conservation and Farmers Income) [Dissertation]. Andalas University, Padang (in Indonesian).
Karyono. 1990. Home garden in Java: their structure and function. In: K Lan-dauer and M Brazil (eds). Tropical Home Garden. The United Nations University Press, Tokyo, pp. 138-146.
Kusumandari A and BR Mitchell. 1997. Soil erosion and sediment yield in forest and agroforestry areas in West Java, Indonesia. J Soil Water Conserv 52: 376-380.
Lane SN, SC Reid, V Tayefi, D Yu and RJ Hardy. 2004. Reconceptualising coarse sediment delivery problems in rivers as catchments-scale and diffuse. Geomorphology 57: 123-142.
Lee BD, RC Graham, TE Lauren, C Amrhen and RM Creasy. 2001: Spatial Distribution of Soil Chemical condition in a serpentinitic Wetland and Surrounding Landscape. Soil Sci Soc Am J 65: 1183-1196.
Liu BY, MA Nearing, PJ Shi and ZW Jia. 2000. Slope Length Effects on Soil Loss for Steep Slopes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64: 1759-1763.
Lim KJ, S Myung, AE Berbard, T Zhennxu, C Joongdae and SK Ki. 2005. GIS-based sediment assessment tool. Catena 64: 61-80.
Lu H, CJ Moran and IP Prosser. 2006. Modelling sediment delivery ratio over the Murray Darling Basin. Environ Model Soft 21: 1297-1308.
Mati BM, RPC Morgon, NG Francis, NQ Jhon, RB Tim and PL Hans. 2000. Assessment of erosion hazard with the USLE and GIS: A case study of the Upper Ewaso Ng'iro North basin of Kenya. JAG 2: 78-86.
Metternicht G and S Gonzalez. 2005. FUERO: Foundations of a fuzzy exploratory model for soil erosion hazard prediction. Environ Model Soft 20: 715-728.
Morgon RPC. 2001. A simple approach to soil loss prediction : a revised Morgon-Morgon-Finney model. Catena 44: 305-322.
Morgon RPC. 1985. Soil Erosion and Conservation. Longman, London, pp, 127.
Morgon RPC, JN Quinton, RE Smith, G Govers, JWA Poesen, K Auerswald, G Chisci, D Torri and ME Styczen. 1998. The European Soil Erosion model (EUROSEM)" A Dynamic Approach for Predicting Sediment Transport from fields and Small Catchments. Earth Surf Proc Landform 23: 527-544.
Nearing MA. 1998. Why soil erosion models over-predict small soil losses and under-predict large soil losses. Catena 32: 15-22.
Obi ME and FK Salako. 1995. Rainfall parameters influencing erosivity in southeastern Nigeria. Catena 24: 275-287.
O'Neal MR, MA Nearing, CV Roel, S Jane and AP Rebecca. 2005. Climate change impact on soil erosion in Midwest United States with change in crop management. Catena 61: 65-184.
Ozhan S, BA Nihat, O Necdet, H Ahmet, G Ferhat and S Yusuf. 2005. Cover and management factor for the Universal Soil-Loss Equation for forest ecosystems in the Marmara region, Turkey. Forest Ecol Manage 214: 118-123.
Parysow P, G Wang, G Gertner and AB Anderson. 2003. Spatial uncertainty analysis for mapping soil erodibility based on joint sequential simulation. Catena 53: 65-78.
Renard GK and RF Jeremy. 1994. Using monthly precipitation data to estimate the R-factor in the revised USLE. J Hydrology 157: 287-306.
Roehl JE. 1962. Sediment sources areas, and delivery ratios influencing morphological factors. Int Assoc Hydrol Sci 59: 202-213.
Saidi A. 1995. The affecting factor of runoff, sedimentation and their impacts on land degradation in Sumani Subwatershed, Solok, west Sumatra. [PhD thesis]. Padjajaran University. Bandung, Indonesia, pp. 173-175.
Sang-Arun J, Shamshad, M Mihara, Y Horaguchi and E Yamaji. 2006. Soil erosion and participatory remediation strategy for bench terrace in northern Thailand. Catena 65: 258-264.
Sarainsong F, K Harashima, H Arifin, K Gandasasmita and K Sakamoto. 2007. Practical application of a land resources information system for agricultural landscape planning. Landscape Urban Plan 79: 38-52.
Schmidt J, Mv Werner and A Michael. 1999. Application of the EROSION 3D model to the CATSOP watershed, The Netherlands. Catena 37: 449-456.
Seyed HA, A Seifollah, RK Ali and M Naser. 2006. Simulating watershed outlet sediment concentration using the ANSWERS Model by applying two sediment transport capacity equations. Biosyst Engin 94: 615-626.
Shamshad A, CS Leow, A Ramlah, WMAW Hussin and SAM Sanusi. 2008. Applications of Ann AGNPS model for soil loss estimation and nutrient loading for Malaysian condition. Intl J Appl Earth observ Geoinform 10: 239-252.
Schob A, J Schmidt and R Tenholtern. 2006. Derivation of site-related measures to minimise soil erosion on the watershed scale in the Saxonian loess belt using the model erosion 3D. Catena 68:153-160
Takken I, L Beuselinck, J Nachtergaele, G Govers, J Poesen and G Degraer 1999. Spatial evaluation of physically-based distributed erosion model (LISEM). Catena 37: 431-447.
Takata Y, S Funukawa, J Yanai, A Mishima, K Akshalov, N Ishida and T Kosaki. 2008. Influence of crop rotation system on the spatial and temporal variation of the soil organic carbon budget in northern Kazakhstan. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 54: 159-171.
Van Remortel RM, M Hamilton and R Hickey. 2001. Estimating the LS factor for RUSLE through iterative slope length processing of digital elevation . Cartography 30: 27-35.
Wakatsuki T, Y Shinmura, E Otoo and GO Olaniyan. 1998. African-Based Sawah System for the Integrated Watershed Management of the Small Inland Valley of West Africa. FAO Water Report No. 17, pp. 5-79.
Walling DE, Q He and PA Whelan. 2003. Using 137 Cs measurement to validate the application of the AGNPS and ANSWERS erosion and sediment yield models in two small Devon catchments. Soil Till Res 69: 27-43.
Walling DE and Q He. 1994 Rates of overbank sedimentation on the flood plains of several British rivers during the past 100 years. In: variability in stream erosion and sediment transport. IAHS Publ 224: 203-210.
Wang G, GZ Gertner, S Fang and AB Anderson. 2005. A Methodology for Spatial Uncertainty Analysis of Remote Sensing and GIS Products. Photogram Eng Rem S 71: 1423-1432.
Wischmeier WH and DD Smith. 1978. Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses: a Guide to Conservation Farming, USDA Handbook: No. 537 US Department of Agriculture, Washingon, DC, pp. 1-58.
World Bank 1994. Indonesian Environment and Development: Challenges for the Future, Report No. 12083-Indonesia, Washington, DC" The World Bank, 21 March.
Zhow W and B Wu. 2008. Assessment of soil erosion and sediment delivery ratio using remote sensing and GIS: a case study of upstream Chaobaihe River catchment, north China. Intl J Sediment Res 23: 167-173.
Zhang Y, H Yang, H Du, X Tang, H Zhang and B Peng. 2003. Soil erosion study on hillside in southern Jiangsu province the cesium-137 tracer technique. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 49: 85-92.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

University of OxfordCOPACColumbia University LibraryStanford Crossref EBSCO



Print ISSN 0852-257X, Online ISSN 2086-6682